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Straight A's don't make millionaires. They make middle managers. Latest News. Beijing, China. While understanding the warning, this road sign creates a dilemma within me what to do first. Khardungla Top pass with snow during spring season. Leh, Ladakh, India. And the last sign from our modern life of today — selfie warning in English, Korean, Chinese and Japanese. Tokyo, Japan. About magazine Contact. Sign in. Forgot your password?
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Password recovery. Youth Time Magazine. For instance, the stop sign was installed in Wyoming uses a year replacement cycle that allows the Wyoming agency to use a one-digit coding system. Note: The photograph was taken before Minnesota uses a color-coded sticker on the back of the sign, as shown in figure 4, with a different color each year to make inspections easier. Figure 3. Figure 4. The use of expected sign life as a maintenance method is widely used because of its ease of implementation.
Most agencies use the warranty period provided by the manufacturer to determine when a sign should be replaced. However, some agencies, like Indiana, are beginning to extend their expected sign life levels beyond the warranted sign life as a result of research documenting the durability of sign materials in their area.
The use of a single value for expected service life might result in some signs failing to meet the minimum maintained retroreflectivity levels prior to scheduled replacement or might result in replacement of signs that exceed the minimum levels. Delaware, Kansas, Maine, Missouri, and North Dakota all use a to year life cycle for all of their beaded high-intensity retroreflective materials as of Some agencies such as Indiana 18 , Michigan, and North Carolina 19 are learning that they can expect their in-service life expectancy to be 15 years for beaded high-intensity materials.
The main concern with this method is that there are little data on how different types of sheeting deteriorate over time in a given climate. It can be a complex process to determine how long signs of a certain sheeting type and color will last in a given region of the country.
Also, there are no definitive results on the role that the orientation of the sign face plays in the deterioration of the sign and whether or not signs facing different directions deteriorate at significantly different rates. While there have been many studies, these studies do not come to the same conclusions about the relationship between sign face orientation and deterioration rates.
However, these warranties obviously include a certain factor of risk on the part of the manufacturer and therefore are often conservative. They may also vary depending on the region of the country. In general, however, it can be expected that retroreflective sheeting materials will have a warranty provided for the ASTM Type-designated materials as shown in table 5.
Additional information on sign sheeting durability can be found in several research reports. See references 18 — The minimum retroreflectivity levels provide the initial basis for the expected life criteria, but an understanding of the actual degradation rates of in-service signs is required to set appropriate triggers as retroreflectivity levels approach the minimum requirements. Degradation rates differ by region of the country, type and color of material, and orientation.
Furthermore, under this method, the actual retroreflectivity of a sign is not assessed—only the age of the sign is monitored. There is a potential need to gather sample data on the true service life of signs to adjust the expected life measures. Some agencies accomplish this by the measurement of a sample of the removed signs; some monitor the performance of a small number of signs; and others measure the retroreflectivity of in-service signs with known installation dates.
This method requires that agencies track the installation date of their signs.
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For the field replacement approach to this method, there is the benefit of associating the condition of a sign to its age. The use of a computerized sign management system may eliminate the need for a date sticker, but it also limits the means that may be used to analyze actual service lives because of the need for bar-code reading equipment or other technology-dependent equipment that might be used to code information on a sign.
The expected sign life method allows agencies to help develop local service life requirements based on actual end-of-service-life retroreflectivity measurements and comparisons to minimum required levels. These comparisons can provide useful information on service life under local conditions, product performance, sign fabrication processes, and analysis of replacement strategies. This method requires that the type of sheeting used to fabricate a sign be known.
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Other pertinent information may also be necessary to take advantage of sophisticated sign life prediction algorithms. One drawback to this method is that it can be fairly time consuming to check date stickers if the stickers are not easily viewable or identifiable on the sign. Another possible difficulty relates to marking signs that need to be replaced, although immediate replacement is possible for some sign types.
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If an agency uses a sign management system and functions with the use of portable computers in the field, the inspectors can easily note the signs that need to be replaced, and even generate work orders. The blanket replacement method is essentially the expected sign life method executed on a spatial or strategic basis.
On a spatial basis, all the signs in a specific area or corridor get slated for replacement at the same time, when the effective service life is reached. On a strategic basis, all the signs of a specific type get slated for replacement at the same time. Depending on the size of the jurisdiction, it may be possible to plan sign replacements that consider both geographic and strategic criteria. The blanket replacement is being used by various agencies around the country such as the City of Glendale, AZ.
This method is probably the simplest of the management methods in that tracking the age of individual signs, either by physical labeling or in a database, is not necessary. It is only necessary to maintain a record of when the blanket actions were undertaken and when they need to be repeated. Usually this method is repeated after a set number of years, depending on the expected life of the signs. At set time periods, a sign maintenance crew will go to a specific area or corridor and replace all the designated traffic signs under its jurisdiction.
This might be done such that regulatory signs are replaced in one cycle, warning signs in another cycle, and guide signs in a third cycle. The time interval between replacements is usually based on the expected sign life as discussed in the previous section. Under this method, all signs are replaced regardless of the amount of time they have been in the field or the condition at the time of replacement.