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Purchase Instant Access. View Preview. Learn more Check out. Citing Literature. Related Information. Close Figure Viewer. Browse All Figures Return to Figure. Previous Figure Next Figure. The influence of these mass influxes expanded to include social, cultural, political and economic life, with diverse and pervasive impacts on the transnational communities of Germany and Turkey, as well as on Euro-Turks themselves. Several events have been held in commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of the Turkish-German migrant worker agreement, including film festivals, cultural activities, a train voyage from Sirkeci to Munich, concerts, art exhibitions, conferences, 5.
At the state level, official delegates from Germany and Turkey also gathered to celebrate this special anniversary as well. All of these events, naturally, reveal a desire to evaluate the past fifty years and to raise the critical question of whether the migration from Turkey to Germany has been a success or a failure. Today, the second, third, and even fourth generation of immigrants represent a unique profile of immigration which has contributed to the cosmopolitan multiculturalism of Germany.
From an optimistic perspective, this history of migration could be considered to be quite unique and successful. The movement from Turkey to Germany of immigrants included the initial guest workers who migrated under the auspices of the agreement made between Turkey and Germany as well as those that followed with the aim of re-joining families, and this number was expanded upon by influxes of Turkish expatriates, students, refugees and asylum seekers; this large immigrant community came to be known as Euro-Turks. Despite their differences in ethnic background, language, faith, gender, age, or town 6.
As a consequence of these migrations from Turkey to Germany, it is possible to not only talk about the emergence of a transnational society but also to take into consideration the resultant amalgamations of German culture and society. In terms of internationalization, this movement contributed to a series of transformations which are an asset for society in both the host and home countries. Turkey has gained from emigration primarily in economic terms. The remittances that workers sent to their families in Turkey were a major source of foreign exchange that offset economic deficiencies and trade imbalances, especially in the s when an import substitution economic model was in place.
Relatives working in Germany brought to their families in Turkey such gifts as radios, colour TVs, cameras and instant coffee, items which previously had been difficult to obtain. Also, as an effect of migration to Germany, unemployment rates in Turkey remained at tolerable levels. Over time, the amount of remittances decreased as immigrants in Germany started. Fewer and fewer individuals moved back to Turkey, and the economic processes associated with migration continued.
Germany, just like Turkey, benefitted from this state of affairs. The reconstruction of Germany in the post-WW II era owed much to the contributions of guest workers who came not only from Turkey but from other countries as well. Most of the migrants from Turkey worked in the automotive, construction, and technical industry sectors, but over time worker distribution diversified to include such sectors as tourism and services.
In the process of the transformation of Gastarbeiter guest worker to EuroTurk, Germany became one of the largest, most competitive and dynamic economies in the world and has come to hold a place at the top of the list of most developed countries. It was through the contribution of the labour of migrants from Turkey that Germany was able to achieve this status.
In terms of the immigrant society itself, it could also be possible to invoke a success story in light of the fact that some immigrants from Turkey settled in Germany, acquired dual citizenship if they didnt become German citizens altogether , learned German, integrated into the host society,.
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Additionally, some migrants settled and became entrepreneurs who moved up the social ladder. In literature, cinema, the arts, politics, and sports, there has been an increasing presence of Germans of Turkish descent and Turkish nationals living in Germany.
Fifty Years of EU-Turkey Relations
In fact, discussions have emerged in literary circles about whether writers who migrated from Turkey, but write in German and live in Germany and write on the issue of immigration in Germany and Turkish society, should be considered to be in the domain of Turkish or German literature. From a pessimistic perspective, however, one could also raise questions about the success of the story of emigration from Turkey to Germany. First, the integration and naturalization of immigrants in Germany has been slow and limited in scope.
In , Turkish citizens represented the largest group of non-nationals living in the EU; it should also be pointed out that approximately 1. Additionconflict at the inter-societal level, there ally, German naturalization laws have have been occasional bouts of violence, become increasingly strict over the years, such as the burning of houses occupied and, compounding the problem, some by Turks, and this has led to a sense of members of the Turkish community in insecurity for the Turkish community.
Germany have actively resisted full natuTurkish migrants to Germany have ralization. In terms of economic success, even encountered discrimination and Turkish immigrants are predominantly degradation back in their home country; in the lower strata of German society the label Almanc meaning a Turk from and poverty levels are higher among Germany is just one example of this. It should be noted, however, that the Although there has been greater integrakey players in Turkish domestic politics tion among subsehave developed a quent generations of Although there has been greater close relationship immigrants, younger integration among subsequent with the political groups have nonein theless experienced generations of immigrants, communities and difficulty adapting younger groups have nonetheless Germany, many civil society to the host society, experienced difficulty adapting associations in an issue which has to the host society.
Turkey have branches frequently been takin Germany, or en up in films and vice versa. A large number of the novels. Low levels of education, unempolitical parties active in the Turkish ployment, drug use, and crime are just a political arena have a constituency few of the problems Turkish immigrant families face in Germany. What is more, the Political unrest among members of the Turkish community in Germany is able Turkish community in Germany has also to raise its voice, and it has lobbied for materialized alongside the rise of political Turkeys membership in the EU.
Yet, Islam, Kurdish ethnic revivalism, and despite the societal connections between Alevi-Sunni sectarian divisions. But these political life in Germany and Turkey, issues are not just one-sided; in Germany, migrants have often not received their incidents of discrimination, xenophobia, fair share of recognition in terms of their Islamophobia, and racism have raised contributions to Turkeys economic and questions about societal tolerance.
Needless to say, tourism is a major source of revenue for the Turkish economy, and each year Germans represent the largest number of tourists visiting Turkey. Yet, the large amount of trade between Germany and Turkey, which to a certain extent is carried out by members of the immigrant community in Germany, has not been properly acknowledged.
Perceptions: Journal of International Affairs has prepared this special issue titled 50 Years of Migration from Turkey to Germany: Current Perspectives and Historical Backgrounds to commemorate this process of emigration from Turkey to Germany. This issue contains studies written by distinguished scholars of migration, and it is a great pleasure for Perceptions to present these articles, all of which deal with the particularities of this migration and examine its fundamental characteristics through an analysis of empirical research and new facts and data.
Since the Turkish community in Germany has been analysed extensively via multivariate social-scientific studies, the articles in this special issue were selected on the basis of their contributions to current discussions highlighting contemporary dynamics. However, the state of affairs today cannot be viewed independently of the past; subsequently, all of the articles in this issue provide a historical perspective to ensure relevance and a sense of continuity.
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Despite the societal connections between political life in Germany and Turkey, migrants have often not received their fair share of recognition in terms of their contributions to Turkey's economic and political life. It is my hope that the discussions raised in these articles will contribute to an opening of further dialogue concerning migration and integration in Turkey and Germany, as well as for other countries which have undergone similar processes of labour migration. As a result of fifty years of migratory trans-border exchange between Turkey and Germany, these two countries have been drawn into a relationship that is marked by complex cultural, economic, and political interchanges.
As the articles in this special edition of Perceptions suggest, the impacts of migration are farreaching, and it is only through further dialogue that the success of the story told here can unfold. At this point I would like to thank our contributors for their interest and expertise which made this special issue possible, and we are also indebted to the journals editorial board for their supporting efforts.
Last but not least, all of the articles have been peer reviewed by referees who are experts in their field of specialization. I would like to thank anonymous readers who have contributed to the articles published at this special issue with their valuable comments and feedback. Abstract Turkey is a country with relatively recent and ongoing experience of labour emigration.
Starting with the signing of the bilateral Turkish-West German labour recruitment agreement in October , it has been a country of emigration, a trend that significantly influenced part of its economic, social, and political history.
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This essay elaborates the last fifty-year history of labour emigration from Turkey, and its consequences for the country in the economic, social and political spheres. It aims to sketch briefly the trends and patterns of emigration flows with reference mainly to the changing nature of these flows over time.
More specifically, the essay offers an overview of the main impacts of labour migration for the country. It concludes that neither the positive nor the negative consequences of emigratory flows for the country should be overestimated. His main research interests include migration and population movements. Keywords Turkey, Germany, emigration, labour migration, labour recruitment agreement, remittances.
Introduction It has been exactly 50 years since the start of large-scale emigration from Turkey to other parts of the world. Throughout that time many changes have taken place in Turkey, and the country is now quite different from what it was 30 or 40 years ago. There is no doubt that some of these changes have been associated with the dynamics and mechanisms of these emigration flows. Although the country had experienced a series of outflows of people since the late 19th century, these flows were mostly limited to persons with nonTurkish or non-Islamic background.
Therefore, Turkish emigration, in its ethnic or national sense, is a relatively new phenomenon.